Last edited by Zulkik
Thursday, January 30, 2020 | History

2 edition of The Misuse of Mind found in the catalog.

The Misuse of Mind

Karin Stephen

The Misuse of Mind

  • 17 Want to read
  • 28 Currently reading

Published by IndyPublish.com .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Epistemology, theory of knowledge,
  • Epistemology,
  • Philosophy

  • The Physical Object
    FormatPaperback
    Number of Pages112
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL11753462M
    ISBN 10141426805X
    ISBN 109781414268057

    Although not strictly a form of substance abuse, the eating disorder bulimia nervosa does involve the misuse of food. The moment a quality has been distinguished in a fact that fact has been fitted into a class, the class which consists of all the facts in which that quality can be distinguished. Our imagination, as mentioned before, is a great and powerful force in our lives. For practical purposes it is essential to use present and past facts as signs of what is coming so that we may be ready for it.

    Now the fact which we know directly does not change so: it forms a continuous becoming which is not made up of any number, however great, of fixed stages. It is true that there is some correspondence between the actual facts and the common sense world of solid tables and so on, and we usually jump to the conclusion that this correspondence would not be possible unless the facts had common qualities. If, on the other hand, the past is preserved, distinct from the present, then temporal relations can indeed hold between them, but in that case there is no real change nor time at all. CHAPTER II FACT Common sense starts out with the assumption that what we know directly is such things as trees, grass, anger, hope and so on, and that these things have qualities such as solidity, greenness, unpleasantness and so on, which are also facts directly known.

    The alternative is to suppose that time and change form logical series of events in temporal relations of before and after, but, according to Bergson, this not only leaves out the transition altogether but is, even as it stands, unintelligible. When our imagination is focused on the bad things, on the worst outcomes, on the least favorable things, it brings us concern that these things may come to pass. It is language again which makes it so difficult to point out that this assumption is mistaken, because, actually, the form of facts is non-logical, a continuous process and not a series. The result is self-contradictory and this contradiction acts as a reminder warning us against confusing the actual changing fact with the abstractions in terms of which we describe it and so falling into the mistake of taking it for granted that this changing fact must form a series of distinct stages or things or events or qualities, which can be repeated over and over again. He suggests, however, that our preoccupation with these useful abstractions, classes and their relations, misleads us as to the facts themselves. But it is to our practical interest to put it aside, or at any rate only to accept just so much of it as can more or less usefully throw light on the present situation and complete it.


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The Misuse of Mind book

In whatever situation he finds himself a man may take up one of two attitudes, he may either adopt a practical attitude, in which case he will set to work to explain the situation in order that he may know what to do under the circumstances, or he may take a speculative interest in it and then he will devote himself to knowing it simply for the sake of knowing.

Solvents Solvent abuse or volatile substance abuse is the inhalation of fumes from ordinary household products in order to get high. We might certainly go into greater detail than this, distinguishing any number of shades in each of the colours mentioned, but the description would still have to be given in the same form, that of a series of different colours, or shades of colour, strung together by relations of before and after.

But the intellectual method of explaining by substituting general abstractions for particular facts is not confined to science. When what we want is to describe or to explain a situation in general terms then Bergson agrees that analysis and classification are the methods to employ, but he maintains that these methods which are useful for describing and explaining are no use for finding out the actual situation which we may want to describe or explain.

But when it comes to describing this changing fact distinct terms have to be employed because there are no others, and this creates pseudo-problems such as this question of how, assuming past and present to be distinct, the transition between them ever can be effected.

The fact directly known being given the problem is to find out what it is and how it comes to be known. There is a sense of impatience with thought and a thirst for the actual, the concrete. Analysis and classification, instead of increasing our direct knowledge, tend rather to diminish it.

I like to look at all the possible outcomes, and then start assigning probabilities to each.

Misuse Quotes

This intellectual attitude, as Bergson calls it, though practically useful, has, according to him, two grave drawbacks from the point of view of speculation. The terms of the plan by which we explain the facts, the classes, for instance, daylight and darkness, and their relation The Misuse of Mind book alternation, or the words or symbols which stand for classes and relations are not themselves facts but abstractions.

The change perceived when we look at the spectrum would thus have to be described in terms of a series of colours, red before orange, orange before yellow, yellow before green, and so on. How can you regain focus and point your imagination into a better direction?

Bergson would not think of denying that this intellectual method, in which facts are used as material for abstraction, is of the utmost practical use for explaining facts and so enabling us to control them.

Depressants act on the central nervous system and slow down brain activity. There is no denying that facts can be classified and it seems only natural to take it for granted that whatever can be classified must share some quality with whatever belongs to the same class, that, indeed, it is just on account of all sharing the same common quality that facts can be classified as being all of the same kind.

The brain enables us to make this selection: it materialises the useful memories and keeps those which would be of no use below the threshold of consciousness.

To feel better. To do better. But it is quite possible to make a false judgment as to what experience we are actually having, or, still more commonly, simply to take for granted that our experience must be such and such, without ever looking to see whether it is or not.

Bergson, however, believes that these logical characteristics really only belong to abstractions and are not discovered in facts but are imposed upon them by our intellectual bias, in the sense that we take it for granted that the facts which we know directly must have the same form as the abstractions which serve to explain them.

High doses can cause nervousness and anxiety 9except for tobacco. If, on the other hand, the past is preserved, distinct from the present, then temporal relations can indeed hold between them, but in that case there is no real change nor time at all.

This, if true, is a very important difference between facts and abstractions which common sense entirely overlooks when it assumes that we are directly acquainted with common qualities. Project Gutenberg updates its listing of IP addresses approximately monthly. This preoccupation is natural enough.

If, when we have freed ourselves from the preconceptions created by our normal common sense intellectual point of view, we find that what we know directly is a non-logical process of becoming, then we must admit that intellectual thinking is altogether inappropriate and even mischievous as a method of speculation.

Being particularly concerned to emphasise the changing nature of what we know directly Bergson rejects the latter alternative: short of simply giving up the attempt to describe it he has then no choice but to treat this process which he calls duration as a plurality and this drives him into speaking of it as if it had parts.

The work of abstraction by which, treating the facts directly known as so much material for framing explanations, we pass from these actual facts to the general laws which explain them, falls into four stages, and at each stage, according to Bergson, as we go further and further from the original fact directly known, the two vices of the intellectual method, limitation and distortion of the actual fact, become more and more apparent.

A speculative rather than exegetical work, it argued that Greek tragedy arose out of the fusion of what he termed Apollonian and Dionysian elements—the former representing measure, restraint, and harmony and the latter representing unbridled passion—and that Socratic rationalism and optimism spelled the death of Greek tragedy.

No explanation, of course, can actually acquaint us directly with the real antecedent or consequent facts themselves: it can only tell us to what classes these facts must belong. Now these laws are general laws applying to whole classes of facts of one kind, or another.

Effects of Drug Abuse

The assumption which we usually make that the facts must consist of such things as events and qualities and material objects is not based upon the evidence of direct knowledge: we make the assumption that the facts must be of this kind simply because they can be explained in these terms.

Both disrupt the normal, healthy functioning of an organ in the body, both have serious harmful effects, and both are, in many cases, preventable and treatable.Prescription drug misuse can have serious medical consequences.

Increases in prescription drug misuse 1 over the last 15 years are reflected in increased emergency room visits, overdose deaths associated with prescription drugs 2–5, and treatment admissions for prescription drug use disorders, the most severe form of which is an addiction.

The NOOK Book (eBook) of the The Misuse of Mind: A Study of Bergson's Attack on Intellectualism by Henri Bergson, Karin Stephen | at Barnes & Noble. B&N Outlet Membership Educators Gift Cards Stores & Events Help Auto Suggestions are available once you type at least 3 letters.

THE BOOK On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are ALAN WATTS Alan Watts, who died inheld both a master's degree in theology and a doctorate.

The Misuse of Mind: A Study of Bergson's Attack on Intellectualism

Jul 01,  · Read "The Misuse of Mind A Study of Bergson's Attack on Intellectualism" by Karin Stephen available from Rakuten Kobo. French philosopher Henri-Louis Bergson attained a massive following in the early twentieth century, based largely on the Brand: The Floating Press.

The Misuse of Mind and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. Learn more. The Misuse of Mind 1st Edition. by Karin Stephen (Author) › Visit Amazon's Karin Stephen Page.

Find all the books, read about the author, and more. See search results for this 3/5(1). Karin Stephen (née Costelloe) (–) was a British psychoanalyst and atlasbowling.com Stephen was educated at Newnham College, Cambridge, where she became a Fellow.

She married Adrian Stephen shortly before World War I; the couple, as conscientious objectors, spent the war working on a dairy farm. After the war, the couple trained as doctors and then went into analysis with James.